Hurrah! The software project is completed. Wait, wait, wait! Have you tested it?
It is not enough to just finish a software project; we also need to test it. But why is it important for us to test software applications?
Software testing involves determining if the programme functions correctly and complies with the written requirements specifications. Software testing’s primary objectives are to fix defects and improve the software’s functionality, user interface, security, and other elements. A lot of testing can significantly raise the software’s overall quality, which will result in very happy customers.
Even while mistakes happen, sometimes the price of a mistake is simply too expensive. Software bugs have been known to squander billions of dollars or even result in fatalities in the past. Examples include hundreds of flights to and from London’s Heathrow airport that were disrupted on 16th Feb 2020, after a study identified a software flaw that had earlier resulted in a deadly crash in Spain, Airbus issued a warning for promptly inspecting its A400M aircraft.
Because testing is equally vital, let’s examine its many forms and specifics. Functional testing and non-functional testing are the two primary broad categories into which software testing is often divided. In addition, maintenance testing is another generic sort of testing.
The fundamental functions of an application are examined through functional testing, a sort of software testing, against a predetermined set of standards. You must test every functionality when conducting functional tests. Keep on checking regularly if you’re obtaining the outcomes you want or not. Functional tests use Black Box Testing methodologies to determine whether a given input produces the intended outcome regardless of any other information. Tests pass or fail, and the results are binary. Functional testing should result in software with a seamless user experience, consistent API, and integration with business processes.
There are different types of functional testing-
1. Unit Testing
It concentrates on the smallest element of software design. In this case, we test a single unit or a group of connected units. During the creation of an application, unit testing is frequently done by the developer. Each unit tested during unit testing might be viewed as an item, a feature, a process, or a method. Developers typically utilize test automation technologies like NUnit, Xunit, and JUnit for the execution of tests. To assess whether isolated code is proper, unit testing is used.
Unit testing utilizes the code of the software application and all white box testing methodologies.
2. Integration Testing
The process of logically combining two or more modules of an application and testing them as a whole is known as “integration testing” in software testing. This type of testing focuses on finding problems with data flow, communication, and the interface between modules. Either a top-down or bottom-up approach is used to integrate modules into the larger system. To make sure that everything functions as planned, this form of testing is essential. Since numerous distinct application components must function, these tests are more expensive to run.
3. Smoke Testing
Smoke tests are simple evaluations that examine an application’s fundamental functionality. The Software Testing team validates each new build that the developer team submits and makes sure that there are no significant issues. The testing team will confirm that the build is stable before moving on to more thorough testing. Smoke testing is done in the initial stages of the software development life cycle(SDLC).
4. End-to-End Testing
This testing verifies the entire piece of software, including its integration with external interfaces, from beginning to end. To replicate real-time conditions, it uses test environments and data from actual production. Chain testing is another name for E2E testing. By identifying problems and boosting the test Coverage of subsystems, End To End Testing evaluates the entire system flow and boosts confidence. Having sufficient information about the entire system as well as a related sub-system is the largest obstacle in this testing.
5. Alpha Testing
The first step in determining whether a new product will function as anticipated is alpha testing. Before moving on to beta tests, which involve a representative sample of the target market utilizing the product, internal personnel conduct early-stage alpha tests. type of testing carried out at the developer’s location on a software system or product. Typically, end users carry it out. There are two stages to alpha testing:
a) The first phase of testing is done by in-house developers to catch bugs quickly.
b) While the second phase of alpha testing is done by software QA staff, for additional testing in an environment.
6. Beta Testing
Beta testing is a kind of user acceptability testing where the product team delivers a set of target users a nearly finished product to assess how well it performs in the real world. There is no fixed standard for how to set up beta testing or how a beta test should seem. The testing process itself should be pertinent to your testing objectives. In the modern software development process, beta testing should be an integral part of the product development cycle.
8. Regression Testing
A regression test is testing used in software testing to verify that an application still operates as expected after any modifications, updates, or improvements to the code.
The overall stability and efficiency of the current features are ensured by regression testing. Regression testing is used whenever a new change is made to the code to ensure that the system remains stable in the face of ongoing improvements.
9. User Acceptance Testing
This test determining whether the system complies with user needs is a procedure. It may cover the application’s functionality, ease of use, execution, and user interface. The customer and the end user typically check to make sure the requirements were accurately stated and carried out. Verifying that the requirements were accurately conveyed and carried out is often done by the client and the end-user.
Non-functional testing is a form of software testing used to evaluate a software application’s non-functional characteristics, such as its performance, usability, dependability, etc. A tester must use a lot more imagination when conducting this kind of testing. It has nothing to do with mechanically pressing the correct buttons. The testing professional must devise a plan for gathering client expectations and provide a series of tests to evaluate how well they are satisfied. Non-functional testing is often automated.
Some of the non-functional testings are –
1. Security testing
Security testing is done on software, programmes, and websites to see how well-defended they are against internal and/or external threats.
2. Availability testing
Durability testing, often known as availability testing, is a type of performance testing in which the application is used for a predetermined amount of time while being monitored for failure events and repair timeframes, with the availability percentage then being compared to the service level agreement.
3. Performance testing
A set of testing techniques known as performance testing simulates user traffic and request patterns within a software solution. Performance testing enables you to assess the application’s speed of operations as well as the system’s overall dependability, stability, and scalability. It also allows you to compare the expected results with the indicators received.
4. Compatibility testing
It will ascertain whether your software programme or product is competent enough to function in a variety of hardware, operating systems, databases, browsers, and mobile devices. Always conduct compatibility tests in a physical setting as opposed to a virtual one. To achieve complete compatibility, test the application’s compatibility with a range of browsers and operating systems
5. Usability Testing
The process of evaluating a product or service using actual users is called usability testing. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate the product’s usability, gather qualitative and quantitative information, and assess participant satisfaction.
6. Ad-hoc Testing
Adhoc testing is very widely called Monkey testing and Gorilla testing. And these tests are conducted after the application has already undergone proper formal testing. The least formal testing method is ad hoc since it lacks a structured methodology. Because there are no case studies aligned for certain scenarios, problems discovered using this method are challenging to recreate.
7. Scalability testing
Scalability testing checks that the system is capable of handling anticipated increases in user traffic, data volume, transaction counts, etc. It evaluates a system’s capacity to handle escalating demands. Testing for scalability can be done at the database, software, or hardware levels. Scalability testing seeks to gauge the point at which an application stops growing and to pinpoint the cause of this.
There are many kinds of software testing that we have covered in this article. As the project, needs, and scope change, these testing types, techniques, and how they are implemented vary as well. Remember that not all of the above-mentioned tests posts are necessary for your particular software project. Depending on the kind of software you’re developing and other important factors, you should run different kinds of tests. The most crucial testing method is unquestionably functional testing because it immediately addresses customer needs and viewpoints.